In 64 million American households pets are a source of joy and perhaps even the key to longer, healthier lives. However, pet-owning households with young children, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems need to be aware that their animals can play host to disease-causing microorganisms.
Humans are not likely to catch a disease through their pets, but in very rare cases it can happen. Fortunately, most of these diseases rarely occur in healthy individuals, are generally mild and can always be treated. Some; however, like toxoplasmosis, can be far more serious, especially to pregnant women. Diseases transmitted from animals to humans are called zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases usually live out their complex life cycles in animals, but sometimes cross into human bodies. Usually contracting a pet-borne disease requires very close contact with animals or their excretions, so zoonotic diseases can be avoided with common sense, good hygiene and cleanliness and of course regular pet examinations and vaccinations.
Children frequently put their hands in their mouths, providing a quick and easy route for bacteria to travel into their bodies. For example, children who eat dirt are more susceptible to contracting zoonotic diseases. Children are also more susceptible to pet-borne illnesses because they carry fewer antibodies than adults do. The same holds true for puppies and kittens, making them more likely to carry disease than older dogs and cats.
Although the chances of getting a zoonotic disease from your pet are slim, these are some of the common pet-borne illnesses that can make people sick:
This bacteria generally makes its way into human bodies through contaminated food. The bacteria can be passed through animal feces and may cause the following symptoms:
Roundworm eggs and microscopic adult worms can be excreted in the feces of dogs and cats infected by the worms. Children may be at a higher risk for contracting roundworms because they play near pets or touch infected feces and put their hands into their mouths. Because of the risk to children, all cats and dogs should be taken to their veterinarians for regular fecal examinations. Also remember to cover all sandboxes when not in use to prevent children from contacting contaminated feces. Symptoms can include:
- loss of appetite
- lung congestion
Cat Scratch Fever
This bacteria is usually transmitted from cats to humans through scratches. The bacteria is found on the nails or claws and can cause the following symptoms:
- high fever
- loss of appetite
- swollen lymph nodes
Cat Scratch Fever is usually mild and resolves itself. However, the bacteria caused by Cat Scratch Fever can be extremely dangerous or even fatal if left untreated in immune-compromised individuals. It's important for these pet owners to tell their doctors they own a cat. Young children should be sure to wash scratches thoroughly with soap and water.
Though your pet is probably not the culprit bringing strep into your household each year, the possibility does exist. Recently, researchers have found that it's more likely that people are infecting their pets. In any case, keep your children from kissing, licking or exchanging food by mouth with their pets.
A fungal infection of the skin, hair or nails, ringworm starts as a rapidly spreading hairless, circular lesion. Humans can be infected through use of contaminated objects like hair brushes, towels or clothing or by contact with infected animals like cats, dogs, mice, rats and guinea pigs.
Also called sarcoptic mange, scabies is a skin disease caused by itch mites which burrow under the skin. Scabies cause intense itching and scratching that can result in severe eczema. Humans can be infected through contact with infected animals.
The most effective way to prevent zoonotic diseases and ensure your good health is to ensure good health for your pets. This means taking your pet to the veterinarian for regular exams and vaccinations. Most pet owners find that by following their veterinarian's nutritional and health recommendations, their pets will lead happy, healthy lives with little risk of zoonotic infections.